Indications

Ozenoxacin is indicated for the topical treatment of impetigo due to Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes in adult and pediatric patients 2 months of age and older.

Pharmacology

Mechanism of Action: Ozenoxacin is a quinolone antimicrobial drug. The mechanism of action involves the inhibition of bacterial DNA replication enzymes, DNA gyrase A and topoisomerase IV. Ozenoxacin has been shown to be bactericidal against S. aureus and S. pyogenes organisms.

Absorption: Four pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in 110 patients utilizing varying strengths of ozenoxacin cream, up to 2% (twice the concentration of the marketed formulation). Three of these studies assessed systemic absorption in healthy subjects and in subjects with impetigo. These studies were conducted with either single or repeated application of up to 1 g ozenoxacin cream to intact or abraded skin (up to 200 cm2 surface area). No systemic absorption was observed in 84 of 86 subjects, and negligible systemic absorption was observed at the level of detection (0.489 ng/mL) in 2 subjects.

Distribution: Plasma protein binding of ozenoxacin was moderate (~80 to 85%) and did not appear to be dependent on concentration. Since negligible systemic absorption was observed in clinical studies, tissue distribution has not been investigated in humans.

Metabolism: Ozenoxacin was not metabolized in the presence of fresh human skin discs and was minimally metabolized in human hepatocytes.

Excretion: Studies have not been investigated in humans due to the negligible systemic absorption observed in clinical studies.

Dosage & Administration

Apply a thin layer of Ozenoxacin topically to the affected area twice daily for five days. The affected area may be up to 100 cm2 in adult and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older or 2% of the total body surface area and not exceeding 100 cm2 in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age.
  • Wash hands after applying Ozenoxacin cream.
  • Ozenoxacin cream is for topical use only.
  • Not for oral, ophthalmic, intranasal, or intravaginal use.
  • The treated area may be covered with a sterile bandage or gauze dressing.

Contraindications

None

Side Effects

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety profile of Ozenoxacin was assessed in two clinical trials (Trial 1 and Trial 2) in 362 adult and pediatric patients two months of age and older with impetigo. The patients used at least one dose from a 5-day, twice a day regimen of Ozenoxacin. Control groups included 361 patients who used placebo and 152 patients who used retapamulin ointment. The median age of the patients enrolled in the clinical trials was 10 years; 3 % of patients were 2 months to less than 2 years of age, 55 % of patients were 2 to less than 12 years of age, 11 % of patients were 12 to less than 18 years of age, and 31 % of patients were 18 years of age or older. Adverse reactions (rosacea and seborrheic dermatitis) were reported in 1 adult patient treated with Ozenoxacin.

Pregnancy & Lactation

Pregnancy: There are no available data on the use of ozenoxacin in pregnant women to inform a drug associated risk. Systemic absorption of ozenoxacin in humans is negligible following topical administration of ozenoxacin (up to twice the concentration of the marketed formulation). Due to the negligible systemic exposure, it is not expected that maternal use of ozenoxacin will result in fetal exposure to the drug. Animal reproduction studies were not conducted with ozenoxacin. However, toxicity studies conducted in pregnant rats and rabbits administered the oral form of ozenoxacin showed no significant adverse developmental effects (at >10,000 times the maximum human plasma concentration seen with dermal application of ozenoxacin). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population are unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Lactation: No data are available regarding the presence of ozenoxacin in human milk, and the effects of ozenoxacin on the breastfed infant or on milk production. However, breastfeeding is not expected to result in exposure of the child to ozenoxacin due to the negligible systemic absorption of ozenoxacin in humans following topical administration of ozenoxacin. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ozenoxacin and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from ozenoxacin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Precautions & Warnings

Potential for Microbial Overgrowth: The prolonged use of Ozenoxacin may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria and fungi. If such infections occur during therapy, discontinue use and institute appropriate supportive measures.

Use in Special Populations

Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of ozenoxacin in the treatment of impetigo have been established in pediatric patients 2 months to 17 years of age. Use of ozenoxacin in pediatric patients (2 months to 17 years of age) is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of ozenoxacin in which 251 pediatric patients received at least one dose of ozenoxacin. The median age of the patients enrolled in the clinical trials was 10 years; 3% of patients were 2 months to less than 2 years of age, 55 % of patients were 2 to less than 12 years of age, 11% of patients were 12 to less than 18 years of age, and 31 % of patients were 18 years of age or older. In these studies, the maximum dose applied was approximately 0.5 g of ozenoxacin applied twice daily for up to 5 days (i.e., up to 10 applications total). The safety profile of ozenoxacin in pediatric patients 2 months and older was similar to that of adults. The safety and effectiveness of ozenoxacin in pediatric patients younger than 2 months of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use: Clinical studies of ozenoxacin did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

Overdose Effects

Any sign or symptom of overdose, either topically or by accidental ingestion, should be treated symptomatically. No specific antidote is known.

Therapeutic Class

Topical Antibiotic preparations

Storage Conditions

Store at 20ºC - 25ºC; excursions permitted to 15ºC to 30ºC. Keep away from light & moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.