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Indications

Triamcinolone is indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of the nasal symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and children 6 years of age and older.

Pharmacology

The antiinflammatory actions of corticosteroids are thought to involve lipocortins, phospholipase A2 inhibitory proteins which, through inhibition of arachidonic acid, control the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Firstly, however, these glucocorticoids bind to the glucocorticoid receptors which translocate into the nucleus and bind DNA (GRE) and change genetic expression both positively and negatively. The immune system is suppressed by corticosteroids due to a decrease in the function of the lymphatic system, a reduction in immunoglobulin and complement concentrations, the precipitation of lymphocytopenia, and interference with antigen-antibody binding.

Triamcinolone Acetonide is a more potent derivative of Triamcinolone and is approximately 8 times more potent than prednisone. Corticosteroids are very effective in the treatment of allergic diseases in man. When given by intranasal spray, Triamcinolone Acetonide provides relief from allergy-induced watery nasal discharge (rhinorrhea), nasal congestion, postnasal drip, sneezing, and itching of the back of the throat.

Dosage

Adults and children 12 years of age and older: The recommended dose is 220 µgm as 2 sprays in each nostril once daily. Once symptoms are controlled patients can be maintained on 110 µgm (1 spray in each nostril once daily). The minimum effective dose should be used to ensure continued control of symptoms.

Pediatric Patients aged 6 to 12 years: The recommended dose is 110 µgm as 1 spray in each nostril once daily. Triamcinolone spray is not recommended for children under 6 years of age.

Administration

How to use the Nasal Spray-
  • Shake the bottle gently and remove the dust cover.
  • Hold the spray with your forefinger and middle finger on either side of the nozzle and your thumb underneath the bottle. Press down until a fine spray appears. If using for the first time or if you have not used it for a week or more, press the nasal applicator several times until a fine moist comes out from the container.
  • Gently blow the nose to clear the nostrils.
  • Close one nostril and carefully insert the nasal applicator into the open nostril. Tilt your head forward slightly and keep the spray upright. Breathe in through your nose and while breathing in, press the white-collar of nasal applicator firmly down once to release a spray.
  • Breathe out through your mouth.
  • Repeat the above steps in the same/ other nostril for consecutive doses.
Cleaning: The nasal spray should be cleaned at least once a week. The procedures are as follows-
  • Remove the dust cover.
  • Gently pull off the nasal applicator.
  • Wash the applicator and dust cover in warm water.
  • Shake off the excess water and leave to dry in a normal place. Avoid to apply additional heat.
  • Gently push the applicator back on the top of the bottle and re-fix the dust cover.

Contraindications

No specific contraindications but caution is required in patients with hypersensitivity to any constituents of the formulation.

Side Effects

The most commonly reported adverse reactions in clinical trials with Triamcinolone included those involving mucous membranes of the nose & throat. The most prevalent adverse reactions considered are rhinitis, headache, & pharyngitis. The nasopharyngeal adverse effects included epistaxis, nasal irritation, dry mucous membrane, naso-sinus congestion and sneezing although these are seen as frequently with placebo. As with other nasally inhaled corticosteroids, nasal septal perforation has been reported.

Pregnancy & Lactation

There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women with Triamcinolone. Because animal studies indicate a teratogenic effect, Triamcinolone should be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit justifies the potential benefit to fetus. It is not known whether Triamcinolone is excreted in human breast milk.

Precautions & Warnings

If there is any reason to suppose that adrenal function is impaired, care must be taken while transferring patients from systemic steroid treatment to Triamcinolone. In clinical studies with Triamcinolone administered intranasally, the development of localized infections, on the nose, and pharynx with Candida albicans, has rarely occurred. When such an infection develops it may require treatment with appropriate local therapy and discontinuance of treatment with Triamcinolone. Because of the inhibitory effect of corticosteroids on wound healing in patients who have experienced recent nasal septal ulcers, nasal surgery of trauma, Triamcinolone should be used with caution until healing has occurred.

Overdose Effects

Like any other nasally administered corticosteroid, acute overdosing with Triamcinolone is unlikely in view of the total amount of active ingredient present

Therapeutic Class

Corticosteroid, Glucocorticoids, Nasal Steroid Preparations

Storage Conditions

Store at a temperature not exceeding 25˚C. Protect from light and moisture. Keep out of the reach of children.