Budesonide + Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate

Indications

This is indicated in the regular treatment of asthma. They are also indicated in the symptomatic treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with a history of repeated exacerbations despite regular therapy with long-acting bronchodilators.

Pharmacology

Budesonide: It is an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid that exhibits potent glucocorticoid activity and weak mineralocorticoid activity. Inflammation is an important component in the pathogenesis of asthma. Corticosteroids have a wide range of inhibitory activities against multiple cell types (e.g., mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes) and mediators (e.g., histamine, eicosanoids, leukotrienes, and cytokines) involved in allergic and non-allergic mediated inflammation. These anti-inflammatory actions of corticosteroids may contribute to their efficacy in asthma.

Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate: It is a long-acting, selective β2 - adrenergic agonist with a rapid onset of action. Inhaled Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate BP acts locally in the lungs as a bronchodilator. The pharmacological effects of β2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs are attributable to the stimulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic AMP. Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibit the release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from the cells, especially from mast cells.

Dosage

Inhaler (For Asthma)-
  • Adults and adolescents (12 years and older): The recommended maintenance dose is 1 puff twice daily or 2 puffs once daily. For some patients a maintenance dose of 2 puffs twice daily may be appropriate (for 160/4.5 mcg/inhalation only). Patients should take 1 additional puff as needed in response to symptoms. If symptoms persist after a few minutes, the additional puff should be taken. Not more than 6 puffs should be taken on any single occasion.
  • Children: The usual maintenance dose is 1 -2 puffs once or twice daily. Patients should take 1 additional puff as needed in response to symptoms. If symptoms persist after a few minutes, the additional puff should be taken. Not more than 4 puffs should be taken on any single occasion.
Inhalation Capsule (For Asthma): There are two alternative dosage regimens for the treatment of asthma with Budesonide and Formoterol combination. Budesonide and Formoterol 100 & 200 Inhalation Capsule maintenance and reliever therapy.
Adults and adolescents (12 years and older):
  • Maintenance dose: Budesonide and Formoterol 100 & 200 Inhalation Capsule twice daily
  • Reliever dose: 1 additional Inhalation Capsule as needed in response to symptoms. If symptoms persist after a few minutes, an additional Inhalation Capsule should be taken. Not more than 6 Inhalation Capsule should be taken on any single occasion. A total daily dose of more than 8 Inhalation Capsule is not normally needed, however, a total daily dose of up to 12 Inhalation Capsule can be used temporarily.
Children (4 years and older):
  • Maintenance dose: Budesonide and Formoterol 100 Inhalation Capsule once daily.
  • Reliever dose: 1 additional Inhalation Capsule as needed in response to symptoms. If symptoms persist after a few minutes, an additional Inhalation Capsule should be taken. Not more than 4 Inhalation Capsule should be taken on any single occasion. A total daily dose of more than 4 Inhalation Capsule is not normally needed, however, a total daily dose of up to 8 Inhalation Capsule could be used temporarily.
Inhalation Capsule (For COPD): Adults (40 years and older)
  • 200 Inhalation Capsule: 2 Inhalation Capsule twice daily. Maximum daily maintenance dose: 4 Inhalation Capsule
  • 400 Inhalation Capsule: 1 Inhalation Capsule twice daily. Maximum daily maintenance dose: 2 Inhalation Capsule.

Administration

Using an Inhaler seems simple, but most patients do not know how to use it in the right way. If the Inhaler is used in the wrong way, less medicine can reach the lungs. Correct and regular use of the Inhaler will prevent or lessen the severity of asthma attacks.

Following simple steps can help to use Inhaler effectively (According to "National Asthma Guidelines for Medical Practitioners" published by Asthma Association):
  1. Take off the cap.
  2. Shake the inhaler (at least six times) vigorously before each use.
  3. If the inhaler is new or if it has not been used for a week or more, shake it well and release one puff into the air to make sure that it works.
  4. Breathe out as full as comfortably possible & hold the inhaler upright.
  5. Place the actuator into mouth between the teeth and close lips around the mouthpiece.
  6. While breathing deeply and slowly through the mouth, press down firmly add fully on the canister to release medicine.
  7. Remove the inhaler from mouth. Continue holding breath for at least for 10 seconds or as long as it is comfortable.
  8. If doctor has prescribed more than one inhalation per treatment, wait 1 minute between puffs (inhalations). Shake the inhaler well and repeat steps 4 to 7.
  9. After use, replace the cap on the mouthpiece. After each treatment, rinse mouth with water.
  10. Check your technique in front of a mirror from time to time, if you see a white mist during the inhalation, you may not have closed your lips properly around mouthpiece, or you may not be breathing in as you press the can. This indicates failure of technique. If this happens, repeat the procedure from step 4 carefully.
Instructions for Cleaning Inhaler: Clean your Inhaler at least once a week. Remove canister and rinse the plastic actuator and cap in warm water but do not put the metal canister into water. Dry the actuator and cap thoroughly and gently replace the metal canister into the actuator with a twisting motion. Put the cap on the mouthpiece.

Interaction

Concomitant treatment with Ritonavir, Itraconazole, Ketoconazole or other potent CYP3A4 inhibitors should be avoided.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to Budesonide, Formoterol or to Lactose.

Side Effects

Budesonide: Hoarseness, and candidiasis (thrush) of the mouth and throat can occur in some patients. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions have been reported.

Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate: Tremor, palpitations, and headache have been reported. Cardiac arrhythmias, muscle cramps, and hypersensitivity reactions, including rash, oedema, and angio-oedema, may occur in some patients.

Pregnancy & Lactation

Administration of Budesonide & Formoterol Fumarate in pregnant women and lactating mother should only be considered if the expected benefit to the mother is greater than any possible risk to the foetus

Precautions & Warnings

Treatment with Budesonide and Formoterol combination should not be initiated to treat a severe exacerbation or if patients have significantly worsening or acutely deteriorating asthma.

Use in Special Populations

It is recommended that the height of children receiving prolonged treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is regularly monitored. If growth is slowed, therapy should be re evaluated with the aim of reducing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid. The benefits of the corticosteroid therapy and the possible risks of growth suppression must be carefully weighed. In addition consideration should be given to referring the patient to a paediatric respiratory specialist.

Therapeutic Class

Long-acting selective β-adrenoceptor stimulants, Respiratory corticosteroids

Storage Conditions

Protect from light, store in cool & dry place. Do not store above 30° C. Keep out of the reach of children. Protect from freezing.

Available Brand Names