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Indications

Ramipril indicated in the following cases:
  • Hypertension; to lower blood pressure, as single-drug therapy or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
  • Congestive heart failure; also in combination with diuretics.
  • Treatment of patients who- within the first few days after an acute myocardial infarction- have demonstrated clinical signs of congestive heart failure.
  • Treatment of non-diabetic or diabetic overt glomerular or incipient nephropathy.
  • Reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with an increased cardiovascular risk, such as manifest coronary heart disease (with or without a history of myocardial infarction), a history of stroke, a history of peripheral vascular disease, or diabetes mellitus that is accompanied by at least one other cardiovascular risk factor (microalbuminuria, hypertension, elevated total cholesterol levels, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, smoking).

Pharmacology

Ramipril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which after hydrolysis to ramiprilat, blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance, angiotensin II. So, inhibition of ACE by ramipril results in decreased plasma angiotensin II, which leads to decreased vasopressor activity and decreased aldosterone secretion. Thus ramipril exerts its antihypertensive activity. It is also effective in the management of heart failure and reduction of the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction and death from cardiovascular events. It is long acting and well tolerated; so, can be used in long term therapy.

Dosage

Dosage of Ramipril must be adjusted according to the patient tolerance and response.

Hypertension: For the management of hypertension in adults not receiving a diuretic, the usual initial dose of Ramipril is 1.25-2.5 mg once daily. Dosage generally is adjusted no more rapidly than at 2 week intervals. The usual maintenance dosage in adults is 2.5-20 mg daily given as a single dose or in 2 divided doses daily. If BP is not controlled with Ramipril alone, a diuretic may be added.

Congestive heart failure after myocardial infarction: In this case, Ramipril therapy may be initiated as early as 2 days after myocardial infarction. An initial dose of 2.5 mg twice daily is recommended, but if hypotension occurs, dose should be reduced to 1.25 mg twice daily. Therapy is then titrated to a target daily dose of 5 mg twice daily.

Prevention of major cardiovascular events: In this case, the recommended dose is 2.5 mg once daily for the first week of therapy and 5 mg once daily for the following 3 weeks; dosage then may be increased, as tolerated, to a maintenance dosage of 10 mg once daily.

Dosage in renal impairment:
  • For patients with hypertension and renal impairment: The recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg Ramipril once daily. Subsequent dosage should be titrated according to individual tolerance and BP response, up to a maximum of 5 mg daily.
  • For patients with heart failure and renal impairment: The recommended dose is 1.25 mg once daily. The dose may be increased to 1.25 mg twice daily and up to a maximum dose of 2.5 mg twice daily depending upon clinical response and tolerability.

Administration

Ramipril tablets have to be swallowed with sufficient amounts of liquid. The tablets must not be chewed or crushed. Absorption of Ramipril is not significantly affected by food. Ramipril may, therefore, be taken before, during or after a meal.

Interaction

Concomitant administration with diuretics may lead to serious hypotension and in addition dangerous hyperkalemia with potassium sparing diuretics. Concomitant therapy with lithium may increase the serum lithium concentration. Reduction in BP may affect the ability to drive and operate machinery and this may be exacerbated by alcohol. NSAIDs may reduce the antihypertensive effect of Ramipril and cause deterioration of renal function.

Contraindications

Ramipril must not be used
  • in patients with hypersensitivity to ramipril, to any other ACE inhibitor, or any of the excipients of Ramipril.
  • in patients with a history of angioedema.
  • concomitantly with sacubitril/valsartan therapy. Do not initiate Ramipril until sacubitril/valsartan is eliminated from the body. In case of switch from Ramipril to sacubitril/valsartan, do not start sacubitril/valsartan until Ramipril is eliminated from the body.
  • in patients with haemodynamically relevant renal artery stenosis, bilateral or unilateral in the single kidney.
  • in patients with hypotensive or haemodynamically unstable states.
  • with aliskiren-containing medicines in patients with diabetes or with moderate to severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <60 ml/min).
  • with angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs) in patients with diabetic nephropathy.
  • during pregnancy.
Concomitant use of ACE inhibitors and extracorporeal treatments leading to contact of blood with negatively charged surfaces must be avoided, since such use may lead to severe anaphylactoid reactions. Such extracorporeal treatments include dialysis or haemofiltration with certain high-fux (e.g. polyacrylonitril) membranes and low-density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulfate.

Side Effects

Ramipril is generally well tolerated. Dizziness, headache, fatigue and asthenia are commonly reported side effects. Other side effects occurring less frequently include symptomatic hypotension, cough, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, urticaria, oliguria, anxiety, amnesia etc. Angioneurotic oedema, anaphylactic reactions and hyperkalaemia have also been reported rarely.

Pregnancy & Lactation

Ramipril must not be taken during pregnancy. Therefore, pregnancy must be excluded before starting treatment. Pregnancy must be avoided in cases where treatment with ACE inhibitors is indispensable. If the patient intends to become pregnant, treatment with ACE inhibitors must be discontinued, i.e. replaced by another form of treatment. If the patient becomes pregnant during treatment, medication with Ramipril must be replaced as soon as possible by a treatment regimen without ACE inhibitors. Otherwise, there is a risk of harm to the fetus. Ramipril is not recommended during breastfeeding.

Precautions & Warnings

Ramipril should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function, hyperkalaemia, hypotension, and impaired hepatic function.

Use in Special Populations

Elderly: A reduced initial dose of 1.25 mg Ramipril daily must be considered.

Hepatic impairment: Treatment in these patients must therefore be initiated only under close medical supervision. The maximum permitted daily dose in such cases is 2.5 mg Ramipril.

Renal impairment: With a creatinine clearance between 50 and 20 ml/min per 1.73 m2 body surface area, the initial daily dose is generally 1.25 mg Ramipril. The maximum permitted daily dose, in this case, is 5 mg Ramipril. Patients with incompletely corrected fuid or salt depletion, in patients with severe hypertension, as well as in patients in whom a hypotensive reaction would constitute a particular risk, (e.g., with relevant stenoses of the coronary vessels or those supplying the brain) A reduced initial dose of 1.25 mg Ramipril daily must be considered.

Patients pretreated with a diuretic: Consideration must be given to discontinuing the diuretic for at least 2 to 3 days or- depending on the duration of action of the diuretic- longer before starting treatment with Ramipril, or at least to reducing the diuretic dose. The initial daily dose in patients previously treated with a diuretic is generally 1.25 mg Ramipril.

Overdose Effects

Sign and symptom: Overdosage may cause excessive peripheral vasodilatation (with marked hypotension, shock), bradycardia, electrolyte disturbances, and renal failure.

Management: Primary detoxifcation by, for example, gastric lavage, administration of adsorbents, sodium sulfate; (if possible during the frst 30 minutes). In the event of hypotension administration of α1-adrenergic agonists (e.g. norepinephrine, dopamine) or angiotensin II (angiotensinamide), which is usually available only in scattered research laboratories, must be considered in addition to volume and salt substitution.

Therapeutic Class

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

Storage Conditions

Store at 30° or below, protect from light. Keep out of the reach of children. Do not use later than the date of expiry. To be dispensed only on the prescription of a registered physician.