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Indications

Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg:
  • For the prevention of atherothrombotic events in adult patients after an Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) with elevated cardiac biomarkers (Troponin or CK-MB). It is co-administered with Aspirin alone or with Aspirin plus Clopidogrel orTidopidine.
Rivaroxaban 10-20 mg:
  • To reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation
  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) & pulmonary embolism (PE) and reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT and of PE
  • For the prophylaxis of DVT, which may lead to PE in patients undergoing knee or hip replacement surgery

Pharmacology

Rivaroxaban is a highly selective direct factor Xa inhibitor. Inhibition of factor Xa interrupts the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade, inhibits thrombin formation. Rivaroxaban does not inhibit thrombin (activated factor II) and no effects on platelets have been demonstrated.

Dosage & Administration

Rivaroxaban 2.5 mg:
  • The recommended dose: 2.5 mg twice daily. Patients should also take a daily dose of 75-100 mg Aspirin or a daily dose of 75-100 mg Aspirin in addition to either a daily dose of 75 mg clopidogrel or a standard daily dose of ticlopidine.
Rivaroxaban 10-20 mg:
  • Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: For patients with Creatinin Clearance >50 mL/min: 20 mg orally, once daily with the evening meal. For patients with Creatinin Clearance 15-50 ml/min: 15 mg orally, once daily with the evening meal.
  • Treatment of DVT & PE: 15 mg orally twice daily with food for the first 21 days for the initial treatment of acute DVT or PE. After the initial treatment period, 20 mg orally once daily with food for the remaining treatment.
  • Prevention in the risk of recurrence of DVT and of PE: 20 mg once daily with food.
  • Prophylaxis of DVT following Hip replacement surgery: 10 mg once daily for 35 days.
  • Prophylaxis of DVT following knee replacement surgery: 10 mg once daily for 12 days.
May be taken with or without food.

Interaction

Concomitant use with drugs that are combined P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitors (ketoconazole, ritonavir, clarithromycin, erythromycin, fluconazole, diltiazem, verapamil, dronedarone) increases in Rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects (i.e., factor Xa inhibition and PT prolongation), that’s why should be avoided. Co-administration of Rivaroxaban with a combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducer (e.g., rifampicin, phenytoin, carbamazepine) decreases the efficacy of Rivaroxaban and also should be avoided. The concomitant use of other drugs like anti-platelet agents, heparin, fibrinolytic therapy, NSAIDs may cause an increased risk of bleeding.

Contraindications

It is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity of Rivaroxaban or any of the excipients of the product. It is also contraindicated in patients with active pathological bleeding.

Side Effects

The most common side effects of Rivaroxaban have increased chance of bleeding, spinal or epidural hematoma and increased risk of stroke after discontinuation in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

Pregnancy & Lactation

Rivaroxaban is a pregnancy category C drug. There are no adequate or well-controlled studies of Rivaroxaban in pregnant women, and dosing for pregnant women has not been established. It is not known if Rivaroxaban is excreted in human milk. The safety and efficacy of Rivaroxaban has not been established in breastfeeding women.

Precautions & Warnings

Early discontinuation of Rivaroxaban, in the absence of adequate alternative anticoagulation increases the risk of thrombotic events. Rivaroxaban increases the risk of bleeding that can be fatal in presence of following risk factors- bleeding disorders, uncontrolled severe arterial hypertension, gastrointestinal disease (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, oesophagitis, gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease), vascular retinopathy, bronchiectasis, history of pulmonary bleeding. Signs or symptoms of neurological impairment should be monitored in case of neuraxial anesthesia (spinal/epidural anesthesia) or spinal puncture as epidural or spinal hematoma can occur. Rivaroxaban is not recommended in patients with pulmonary embolism who present with hemodynamic instability or who may receive thrombolysis or pulmonary embolectomy.

Overdose Effects

Overdose of Rivaroxaban may lead to hemorrhage. Rivaroxaban systemic exposure is not further increased at single doses >50 mg due to limited absorption. A specific antidote for Rivaroxaban is not available. The use of activated charcoal to reduce absorption in case of Rivaroxaban overdose may be considered. Partial reversal of laboratory anticoagulation parameters may be achieved with use of plasma products.

Therapeutic Class

Oral Anti-coagulants

Storage Conditions

Store in a cool (below 30°C) & dry place protected from light. Keep away from the reach of children.