Cefepime Hydrochloride

Indications

Cefepime is indicated for the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible strains of the microorganisms:
  • Pneumonia (moderate to severe): caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Enterobacter species.
  • Febrile Neutropenia: Cefepime as monotherapy is indicated for empiric treatment of febrile neutropenic patients. In patients at high risk for severe infection (including patients with a history of recent bone marrow transplantation ... Read more

Pharmacology

Cephalosporins are bactericidal and have the same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins). Cephalosporins disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. The peptidoglycan layer is important for cell wall structural integrity, especially in Gram-positive organisms. The final transpeptidation step in the synthesis of the peptidoglycan is facilitated by transpeptidases known as penicillin binding proteins (PBPs).

Dosage & Administration

Cefepime should be administered intravenously over approximately 30 minutes.
  • Moderate to Severe Pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae, *P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, or Enterobacter species: 1-2 gm IV 12 hourly for 10 days.
  • Empiric therapy for febrile neutropenic patients: 2 gm IV 8 hourly for 7** days.
  • Mild to Moderate Uncomplicated or Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, including pyelonephritis, due to E. coli, K. pneumoniae, or P. mirabilis*: 0.5-1 gm IV/IM*** 12 hourly for 7-10 days.
  • Severe Uncomplicated or Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, including pyelonephritis, due to E. coli or K. pneumoniae*: 2 gm IV 12 hourly for 10 days.
  • Moderate to Severe Uncomplicated Skin and Skin Structure Infections due to S. aureus or S. pyogenes: 2 gm IV 12 hourly for 10 days.
  • Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by E. coli, viridans group streptococci, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter species, or B. fragilis: 2 gm IV 12 hourly for 7-10 days.
Note:
*including cases associated with concurrent bacteremia.
**or until resolution of neutropenia. In patients whose fever resolves but who remain neutropenic for more than 7 days, the need for continued antimicrobial therapy should be re evaluated frequently.
*** IM route of administration is indicated only for mild to moderate, uncomplicated or complicated UTls due to E. coli when the IM route is considered to be a more appropriate route of drug administration.

Interaction

Renal function should be monitored carefully if high doses of aminoglycosides are to be administered with Cefepime because of the increased potential of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics. Nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of other cephalosporins with potent diuretics such as furosemide.

Contraindications

Cefepime is contraindicated in patients who have shown immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cefepime or the cephalosporin class of antibiotics, penicillin, or other betalactum antibiotics.

Side Effects

Cefepime is contraindicated in patients who have shown immediate hypersensitivity reactions to cefepime or the cephalosporin class of antibiotics, penicillin, or other betalactum antibiotics.

Pregnancy & Lactation

Pregnancy Category B. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies of cefepime use in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. Cefepime is excreted in human breast milk in very low concentrations (0.5 pg/ml). Caution should be exercised when cefepime is administered to a nursing woman.

Precautions & Warnings

  • Prescribing Cefepime in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
  • As with other antimicrobials, prolonged use of Cefepime may result in overgrowth of non susceptible microorganisms. Repeated evaluation of the patient's condition is essential.
  • Many cephalosporins, including cefepime, have been associated with a fall in prothrombin activity. Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment, or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk.
  • Cefepime should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
  • Arginine has been shown to alter glucose metabolism and elevate serum potassium transiently when administered at 33 times the amount provided by the maximum recommended human dose of Cefepime. The effect of lower doses is not presently known.

Use in Special Populations

Pediatric Use (2 months up to 16 years): The maximum dose for pediatric patients should not exceed the recommended adult dose. The usual recommended dosage in pediatric patients up to 40 kg in weight for uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections (including pyelonephritis), uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, and pneumonia is 50 mg/kg/dose, administered every 12 hours (50 mg/kg/dose, every 8 hours for febrile neutropenic patients), for durations as given above.

Geriatric Use: Serious adverse events have occurred in geriatric patients with renal insufficiency given unadjusted doses of cefepime, including life-threatening or fatal occurrences of the following: encephalopathy, myoclonus, and seizures. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and renal function should be monitored.

Impaired Hepatic Function: No adjustment is necessary for patients with impaired hepatic function.

Impaired Renal Function: In patients with impaired renal function (creatinine clearance<60 ml/min), the dose of Cefepime should be adjusted to compensate for the slower rate of renal elimination.

Overdose Effects

Patients who receive an overdose should be carefully observed and given supportive treatment. In the presence of renal insufficiency, hemodialysis, not peritoneal dialysis, is recommended to aid the removal of cefepime from the body. Accidental overdosing has occurred when large doses were given to patients with impaired renal function. Symptoms of overdose include encephalopathy (disturbance of consciousness including confusion, hallucinations, stupor, and coma), myoclonus, seizures, and neuromuscular excitability.

Therapeutic Class

Fourth generation Cephalosporins

Reconstitution

For IV the resulting solution should be injected directly into the vein over a period of three to five minutes or injected into the tubing of an administration set while the patient is receiving a compatible IV fluid.

Intravenous: Cefepime is compatible with Sterile Water for Injection. It is also compatible at concentrations between 1 mg/ml and 40 mg/ml with the following IV infusion fluids: 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% and 10% Dextrose Injection, M/6 Sodium Lactate Injection, 5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, Lactated Ringers and 5% Dextrose Injection.

Intramuscular: Cefepime is compatible with the following diluent such as: Sterile Water for Injection, 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, 5% Dextrose Injection, Sterile Bacteriostatic Water for Injection with Parabens or Benzyl Alcohol or 0.5% or 1% Lidocaine Hydrochloride.

500 mg (IV) vials for intravenous administration:
  • Amount of WFI to be added: 5 ml
  • Approximate available volume: 5.6 ml
500 mg (IM) vials for intramuscular administration:
  • Amount of WFI to be added: 1.3 ml
  • Approximate available volume: 1.8 ml 
1 gm (IV) vials for Intravenous administration:
  • Amount of WFI to be added: 10 ml
  • Approximate available volume: 11.3 ml
1 gm (IM) vials for intramuscular administration:
  • Amount of WFI to be added: 2.4 ml
  • Approximate available volume: 3.6 ml
2 gm (IV) vials for Intravenous administration:
  • Amount of WFI to be added: 10 ml
  • Approximate available volume: 12.5 ml 

Storage Conditions

Do not use later than the date of expiry. Keep all medicines out of the reach of children. To be dispensed only on the prescription of a registered physician.

Available Brand Names