Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide

Indications

Dextromethorphan is indicated in Chronic dry cough or unproductive cough; Acute dry cough which is interfering with normal function or sleep.

Pharmacology

Dextromethorphan suppresses the cough reflex by a direct action on the cough center in the medulla of the brain. Dextromethorphan shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used antitussives, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.

Dosage & Administration

Adults and Children over 12 years: 15 to 30 mg three to four times per day. However, 60 mg doses up to four times per day have been used without increased side effects.
Children between 6 and 12 years: 5-15 mg up to four times per day.
Children between 2 and 6 years: 2.5-5 mg up to four times per day.

Interaction

The following medicines should be taken carefully while concomitantly use with Dextromethorphan: Amiodarone, Fluoexetine, Quinidine, CNS depressants and Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to Dextromethorphan or any other component.

Side Effects

Adverse effects with Dextromethorphan are rare, but nausea and dizziness sometimes occur. The drug produces no analgesia or addiction and little or no CNS depression. Excitation, confusion and respiratory depression may occur after overdosage.

Pregnancy & Lactation

Pregnancy: Adequate and well-controlled studies in human have not been done. However, Dextromethorphan has not been reported to cause birth defects.

Lactation: It is not known whether dextromethorphan passes into breast milk. However, Dextromethorphan has not been reported to cause problems in nursing babies.

Precautions & Warnings

Do not use Dextromethorphan to control a cough that is associated with smoking, asthma, or emphysema, or a cough that is productive (produces sputum or phlegm).

Overdose Effects

Symptoms: In mild overdose, tachycardia, hypertension, vomiting, mydriasis, diaphoresis, nystagmus, euphoria, loss of motor coordination, and giggling; in moderate intoxication, in addition to those listed above, hallucinations and a plodding ataxic gait; in severely intoxication, agitation or somnolence.

Management: treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Naloxone may be useful in reversing toxicity.

Therapeutic Class

Cough suppressant

Storage Conditions

Store at 15-30° C