Ketorolac Tromethamine

Indications

Ketorolac Tromethamine is indicated for the short-term management of moderate to severe acute post-operative pain.

Description

Ketorolac Tromethamine is a drug of pyrrolo-pyrrole group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Chemically it is known as 5 benzoyle-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrroligine-1-carboxylic acid, compound with 2 - amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (1:1). Ketorolac Tromethamine inhibits synthesis of prostaglandins and may be considered as a peripherally acting analgesic. The biological activity of Ketorolac Tromethamine is associated with the S-form. Pharmacokinetic property of Ketorolac Tromethamine is linear. It is highly protein bound and is largely metabolized in liver. The products of metabolism and some unchanged drugs are excreted in the urine.

Pharmacology

Ketorolac Tromethamine is a potent analgesic of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It acts by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase enzyme system and hence inhibits the prostaglandin synthesis. It demonstrates a minimal anti-inflammatory effect at its analgesic dose.

Dosage & Administration

Tablet-

Recommended dose is 10 mg every 4-6 hours. It should be used short-term only (up to 7 days) and are not recommended for chronic use. Doses exceeding 40 mg/day is not recommended.

Injection-

Ketorolac injection may be used as a single or multiple doses, on a regular or when necessary schedule for the management of moderately severe, acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting. When administering Ketorolac injection, the IV bolus must be given over no less than 15 seconds. The IM administration should be given slowly and deeply into the muscle. The analgesic effect begins within 30 minutes with maximum effect in 1 to 2 hours after dosing IV or IM. Duration of analgesic effect is usually 4 to 6 hours.

Single-Dose Treatment-
IM Dosing (Adult):
  • Patients <65 years of age: One dose of 60 mg.
  • Patients >65 years of age, renally impaired and/or less than 50 kg of body weight: One dose of 30 mg.
IV Dosing (Adult):
  • Patients <65 years of age: One dose of 30 mg.
  • Patients >65 years of age, renally impaired and/or less than 50 kg of body weight: One dose of 15 mg.
IV or IM Dosing (2 to 16 years of age):
  • IM Dosing: One dose of 1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 30 mg.
  • IV Dosing: One dose of 0.5 mg/kg up to a maximum of 15 mg.
Multiple-Dose Treatment (IV or IM)-
  • Patients <65 years of age: The recommended dose is 30 mg Ketorolac injection every 6 hours. The maximum daily dose should not exceed 120 mg. Patients >65 years of age, renally impaired patients and patients less than 50 kg: The recommended dose is 15 mg Ketorolac injection every 6 hours. The maximum daily dose for these populations should not exceed 60 mg. For breakthrough pain, do not increase the dose or the frequency of Ketorolac Tromethamine.
  • Conversion from Parenteral to Oral Therapy: Ketorolac tablets may be used either as monotherapy or as follow-on therapy to parenteral Ketorolac. When Ketorolac tablets are used as a follow-on therapy to parenteral Ketorolac, the total combined daily dose of ketorolac (oral + parenteral) should not exceed 120 mg in younger adult patients or 60 mg in elderly patients on the day the change of formulation is made. On subsequent days, oral dosing should not exceed the recommended daily maximum of 40 mg. Ketorolac IM should be replaced by Ketorolac tablet as soon as feasible. The total duration of combined parenteral and oral treatment should not exceed 5 days.

Interaction

Other NSAIDs or aspirin: Increase the side effects of ketorolac Tromethamine.
Anti-coagulants: Enhance anti-coagulant effect.
Beta Blocker: Reduce the anti-hypertensive effect .
ACE Inhibitors: Increase the risk of renal impairment.
Methotrexate: Enhance the toxicity of methotrexate.

Contraindications

Ketorolac is contraindicated in patients having hypersensitivity to this drug or other NSAIDs. It should not be used in children under 16 years of age. lt is also contraindicated as prophylactic analgesic before surgery.

Side Effects

Commonly occurring side effects are nausea, vomiting, gastro-intestinal bleeding, melana, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, anxiety, drowsiness, headache, excessive thirst, fatigue, bradycardia, hypertension, palpitation, chest pain, infertility in female and pulmonary edema.

Pregnancy & Lactation

US FDA Pregnancy category of Ketorolac Tromethamine is C. So, Ketorolac Tromethamine should be avoided in pregnancy and lactation unless the potential benefits to the other outweigh the possible risks to the fetus.

Precautions & Warnings

Caution should be exercised in patients over the age of 65 years. Caution should also be taken in patients with active or suspected peptic ulcer or gastrointestinal bleeding or asthma and liver dysfunction.

Therapeutic Class

Drugs used for Rheumatoid Arthritis, Non-Opioid Analgesics

Storage Conditions

Keep in a dry place away from light and heat. Keep out of the reach of children.

Available Brand Names